The Psychology of Chess
Psychology plays a huge role in chess, and those looking to master the game, will do well to learn about its subtle workings- including the behavioral psychology of their opponents. The way your adversary reacts, and acts, can give you a lot of intel. This insight will, in turn, allow you to predict their next move and hopefully win the game.
Many experienced players will also use psychological tactics against you, in an effort to intimate and undermine you, which means that having knowledge of these strategies will allow you to defend yourself against any mind games.
Above all, the psychology of chess is an interesting concept. There are few boardgames that use so much intellect, and that rely so heavily on logical reasoning. Your biggest asset in a game is usually also your biggest vulnerability, and as your mind is your biggest asset in chess, it's interesting to learn how competitors will attempt to attack your brain and your (if you believe in it) inner psyche.
Chess and the psychology of intimidation
While chess is a very civil game, many advanced players will use use psychological tactics to intimidate you, and play more aggressively.
For example, some professional chess players tend to keep all of their pieces facing forward.This is a well known psychological trick, that will subtly project a sense of aggression. It gives the opponent's side of the board a more militant aesthetic, as opposed to the haphazard and less threatening appearance that is associated with pieces facing different directions. If you feel a little hopeless or inferior during your game, check yourself and your adversary's pieces, as your feelings may not reflect your ability but simply the other player's tactics.
In similar fashion, some players 'screw' the pieces into the board. This involves twisting and turning pieces, in a very intimidating way. This is a further scare tactic, one designed to make you feel threatened, and you should acknowledge it and then dismiss it. Alternatively, you could use it yourself on an unsuspecting opponent, although you should assert their ability before you use it (as they may know about it, and use it against you).
The chess gaze
Beginners are particularly prone to the chess gaze. What this entails, is you keeping your gaze on the area of the board where your next move will fall. This is a huge mistake to make, as most advanced players will be watching you more than the board, and will know exactly what section to defend before you can even begin to make the move. It's therefore critical that you look at a different part of the board to where you intend to move. This will help you defend yourself.
A tactic to use against your adversary is to avoid any areas where you are vulnerable, or to make them fear safe spaces. By purposefully ignoring vulnerable sections of the board, you're essentially bluffing, and making your opponent believe that they will be able to attack you- while secretly plotting your defense or attack. Likewise, by staring at safe parts of the board, that are basically irrelevant, you'll make your adversary suspicious. Suspicion usually leads to insecurity, which is a great position for you to be in, as insecure opponents are usually weaker players.
Time: the great psychological weapon
Time is a psychological weapon used in many different games, and even in real life settings. Nothing puts players more on edge than long, drawn out moves that give a sense of knowledge and reflection. Even if your move was preplanned seven turns ago, taking your time could potentially threaten your opponent. In contrast, making short and impulsive moves can throw your adversary off. After all, chess is a long game, and impulsiveness is rare. Therefore, if you can make a quick move without sacrificing your time to strategize, then you should.As with any of these tactics, your opponent may use them against you. Therefore, don't be put off by long moves. This doesn't mean that the other player has any more knowledge of the game than you do, and drawn out plays could simply mean that they want to subtly threaten you. You could react in one of two ways: by acting bored and feigning ignorance, or by watching them intently throughout their whole move (which is a threatening tactic also used by many players).
In response to quick moves, the best way to react is by playing a drawn out move yourself. This contrast tends to offset the effectiveness of an impulsive move, and puts you at an advantage.
Confidence: a balancing act
Confidence can either make or break you in chess. You don't want to appear overly confident, as this can lead you to sacrifice important moves, as your adversary may able to predict your next move (or at least the importance of your next move) on the basis of your confidence. Your confidence may also lower the quality of your playing, and although you may be feeling self assured because you've spotted the winning move, this assurance may actually lead you to miss an attack or make a mistake.
Likewise, in chess, you don't want to appear too insecure. A visible lack of confidence can do two things to your opponent. Firstly, it can empower them. Many players, particularly more advanced ones, will thrive off the insecurity of weaker players as this makes them feel more confident in themselves. In turn, this confidence can lead them to play more aggressively, which can subsequently cause you to lose.
Secondly, a lack of confidence can be difficult to sustain. If you are actually confident but are attempting to downplay it, then not only can you become very confused, but you can also give away this pretense in one confident move. Once you give away the fact that you're trying to bluff your opponent, you've essentially lost the ability to trick them, and you've thereby lost a powerful weapon. By balancing your levels of confidence, you're protecting yourself, and significantly increasing the chances of you winning.
Surprise is key
If you're playing an advanced player, and they irrationally sacrifice one of their key pieces, then your natural reaction is surprise and questioning. You may wonder, why did they let me do that? Am I winning? Did they not realize?
This confusion is actually what your adversary was banking on, and an element of surprise can sometimes be invaluable in chess. Making odd moves that don't make much sense can actually prove contagious, and lead the other player to act irrationally. Once the other players begins making moves based on anything but logic: you have the upper hand.
Surprise is a difficult concept to spot in others, however, as in some cases your opponent may have made a genuine mistake. While you should always be wary of the fact that other players are potentially throwing you off, you should also try to apply a little context to the situation, and to assess whether they were actually tricking you. This is important, because understanding whether you're being tricked is key to you defending yourself from potential future attacks.
The art of bluffing
As with poker, chess often comes down to bluffing. While most professional games are quiet and subdued, if you're playing in an informal setting, don't be afraid to feign and overreact to situations. If you've found a great move, and your opponent's latest play has simply made this move easier for you to accomplish, don't give it away. Bluff, and act disappointed, as you conceal your intentions.
Most people understand the concept of bluffing, and if you act too dramatically, then they will be able to call your bluff. Therefore, in order to truly excel at tricking the other player, you need to act naturally. While this is easier said than done, mastering the art of bluffing can play a huge part in defending you from the psychological threats listed above, as well as tricking your opponent directly.
The power of psychology
Understanding some of the psychological tricks used in chess, and using some yourself, can help you win without a doubt. However, having too much awareness can create a sense of paranoia. Don't assume that other players are constantly trying to undermine you through their behavior. This can not only lead you to miss actual, strategic moves- but it can detract from the enjoyment of the game.
The best way to use psychological tactics is to approach them with moderation. Don't use every single trick mentioned above, as this will make your intentions very obvious. However, do look out for every trick mentioned, as this will allow you spot an amateur. Psychology is a truly powerful, and fascinating component of chess, so having an understanding will no doubt allow you to succeed. The important thing to remember is that psychological tricks are more of a supplement to good moves than a replacement. In order to win, you still have to play competitively, and can't rely on behavioral psychology alone.